A5 Block Exam Recap Batch 2015

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Block A5 - Nervous System and Sense Organs




Exam[edit]

Page 1[edit]

Which of the following enzymes is the most important for the process of thyroidogenesis?
a. thyroid dehydrogenase
b. thyroid peroxidase - (Wikipedia).
c. thyroid cyclooxygenase
d. thyroid phosphodiesterase
e. thyroid diesterase
Where is the location of the cell that contains keratohyaline?
a. in the stratum lucidum
b. in the stratum basale
c. in the stratum corneum
d. stratum granulosum - (Wikipedia).
e. in the stratum spinosum
Which substance that is secreted by astrocytes to inhibit axonal growth?
a. Myelin associated glycoprotein
b. Glutamate
c. Nogo
d. Proteoglycan - (Wikipedia).
e. GAP-43

Page 2[edit]

Which of the following statements is correct for Basal Ganglia signal in extrapyramidal system?
a. Globus pallidus externus send excitatory signal
b. Nucleus Subthalamicus send inhibitory signal
c. Ganglia basal receives inhibitory signal from Cortex
d. Thalamus send inhibitory signal to Cortex
e. Thalamus receives inhibitory signal
Which of the following cells acts as an antigen-presenting cell?
a. Fibroblast
b. Langerhans cells - (Wikipedia).
c. Melanocyte
d. Merkel cells
e. Keratinocyte
Truncal ataxia is a disorder due to lesion in Archicerebellum. Which of the following structures may get injured?
a. Nucleus fastigii
b. Nucleus dentatus
c. Nucleus emboliform
d. Nucleus globose
e. Nuclose Rubra

Archicerebellum contains only the Nucleus Vestibularis, which is not one of the answers (Source). So, the only other answer could be Nucleus fastigii, since it regulates body posture. - (Source).

Page 3[edit]

What is the term for the decrease of accommodation power?
a. Astigmatism
b. Strabismus
c. Presbyopia
d. Scotoma
e. Diplopia
I remember a rule; A medical doctor receiving a gift from a pharmaceutical company can be sued due to corruption allegations. What type of memory is this?
a. Emotional memory
b. Implicit memory
c. Procedural memory
d. Episodic memory
e. Semantic Memory (Study.com).
What is the function of the A domain in the Ca-APTase molecule?
a. For the binding site of ATP
b. For the binding site of ADP
c. For the binding site of phosphate (Wikipedia).
d. For the binding site of N domain activator
e. For the binding site of AMP

Page 4[edit]

Why the delta waves of EEG recordings show large and low frequency spikes?
a. Because the stimulus is strong (Epilepsy Society UK)
b. Because the speed of impulses is slow
c. Because of the short distance between the recording electrodes and neurons
d. Because the brain actively thinks
e. Because of the synchronization of the neuronal activity
Which of the following nuclei of thalamus is deeply involved in the regulation of alertness and sleep-wake cycles?
a. Anterior nucleus (Wikipedia).
b. Ventral anterior nucleus
c. Medial geniculate body
d. Ventro-postero lateral nucleus
e. Intralaminar nucleus

The Suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates sleep-wake cycle. (PubMed).

What is the difference between an action potential and a graded potential? An action potential...
a. has a longer duration than the graded potential
b. occurs locally in the receptive segment
c. occurs a result of the opening of ligand—gated channels
d. has a fixed amplitude (Stack Exchange).
e. could be hyperpolarizing first, then depolarizing

Page 5[edit]

Which of the following is receptor for color?
a.
b.
c.
d. Cones
e.
Which of the following statements is true in regard to Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
If an individual is in the "safe" condition which of the followings increases its activity?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Page 6[edit]

Paralyzed muscle fibers usually become smaller. What is the term for this change?
a. Hyperplasia
b. Paresis
c. Plegia
d. Atrophy
e. Hypertrophy
(Repeating question)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Which of the following events occurs during an excitatory postsynaptic potential?
a. The closing of potassium ion channels
b. The opening of calcium ion channels - (McGill).
c. The opening of chloride ion channels
d. The closing of sodium ion channels
e. The blockage of ion channels by magnesium

Page 7[edit]

I am angry when I see someone smoking in this non-smoking area of Faculty of Medicine. This fact drives me to talk to the person about it. What is the term of the aspect of emotion that urges me to take this action?
a. Conation (Wikipedia).
b. Affect
c. Emotional expression
d. Cognition
e. Physical changes
What is the peak level of growth hormone secretion daily?
a. after waking up in the morning
b. shortly before the bed time
c. exactly at 12 am
d. during the deep at the night sleep
e. after afternoon

"In adults the most reproducible pulse of GH secretion occurs shortly after the onset of sleep in association with the first phase of slow-wave sleep (SWS) (stages III and IV)" - PubMed.

How is the smell and taste sensations generally classified?
a. Teleceptic senses (ChangeAge).
b. Proprioceptic senses
c. Mechanoceptic senses
d. Exteroceptic senses
e. Viceral senses

Page 8[edit]

What is the characteristic of slow pain?
a. The receptor is Pacinian corpuscle
b. The neurotransmitter is glutamate - (NeuroScience UTH TMC, Quizlet).
c. It is transmitted by dorsal column-medial lemniscal system
d. It can be localized precisely
e. It is transmitted via 4 orders of neurons
Which of the following neurotransmitters interconnect nuclei of basal ganglia in brain and control voluntary movement?
a. acetylcholine
b. serotonin
c. endorphine
d. nitric oxide
e. dopamine - (Neuroscience UTH TMC).
Which of the following cells has role in protecting neurons against toxic substances and oxidative stress?
a. ependymal cells
b. microglia - (Wikipedia).
c. astrocytes
d. Schwann cells
e. oligodendrocytes

Page 9[edit]

Which of the following structure plays a role in maintaining air pressure in middle ear?
a. membrana tympani
b. Foramen ovale
c. Foramen rotundum
d. Eustachian tube - (Wikipedia).
e. stapedius
Where is the location of free nerve ending in the skin?
a. basal layer of epidermis
b. dermo-epidermal junction - (Google Books).
c. superficial layer of epidermis
d. reticular stratum
e. dermal papille - (Pierce CTC.edu).
Which of the following structure that covers sclera?
a. Conjunctiva bulbi - (Medical Dictionary).
b. Limbus cornea
c. Tarsus
d. Fornix conjunctiva
e. Conjunctiva palpebrae

Page 10[edit]

What structure is responsible for adjusting the lens?
a. Sclera
b. Ciliary muscle - (Wikipedia).
c. Ora serrata
d. Iris
e. Choroid
What is the function of areas 18 and 19 in cerebral cortex?
a. Processing somatosensory sensation
b. Processing olfactory sensation
c. Processing visual sensation - (Wikipedia).
d. Processing gustatory sensation
e. Processing auditory sensation
Which of the following gyrus/area represents Brodmann area 4?
a. motor supplementary area
b. gyrus precentralis - (Wikipedia).
c. gyrus postcentralis
d. lobulus parietalis
e. premotor area

Page 11[edit]

Which of the following is a neurotransmitter that mediates inhibitory circuit in the bulb?
a. adrenaline
b. noradrenaline
c. glutamate
d. dopamine
e. GABA - (Wikipedia).
Which of the following is required to release phosphate from Ca-ATPase enzyme?
a. Na ion
b. O2
c. Mg ion
d. CO2
e. H2O - (Wikipedia)
Which one of the following ions activates guanylyl cyclase in inner segment membrane of light sensing cell?
a. Cl-
b. Na+
c. K+
d. Ca++ - (Wikipedia).
e. Mg++

Page 12[edit]

The following statement on motor homunculus is correct?
a. The human body representation on the cerebral cortex
b. The representation of the human body on the surface of the brain Brodmann area 17, 18, 19
c. The representation of human body on cerebral cortex on Brodmann area 9, 10, 11, 12
d. The representation of the human body on the surface of the cerebral cortex on the Brodmann area 4, 6 - (EBM Consult).
e. The human body representation on the brain
What type of acceleration needs the semicircular canal?
a. Horizontal
b. Vertical
c. Linear
d. Longitudinal
e. Rotational
In which part of the neuron, neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft?
a. Conductive segment
b. Input zone
c. Trigger zone
d. Transmissive segment - (Quizlet).
e. Initial segment

Page 13[edit]

Where does the neuron from Nucleus Dentatus cerebellum project?
a. Nucleus Pontis - (Wikipedia).
b. Nucleus Vestibularis
c. Nucleus N. III
d. Substantia Nigra
e. Nucleus Rubra
Which of the following neurotransmitters can be used as an acute stimulator of growth hormone?
a. acetylcholine
b. serotonin
c. dopamine - BenBest).
d. norepinephrine
e. oxytocin
Which of the following cell that is involved in tissue damage in CNS?
a. ependymal cells
b. astrocytes - (MSU).
c. Schwann cells
d. oligodendrocytes
e. microglia - (Wikipedia).

Page 14[edit]

Which of the following substances is provitamin A?
a. All-trans-retinol
b. β-carotene - (Wikipedia).
c. All-trans-reinyl ester
d. 11-cis-retinol
e. 11-cis-retinaldehyde
What is the characteristic of emotion and limbic system?
a. Emotion can be turned on and off instantly
b. Limbic system cannot affect neocortex functioning
c. Emotional expression cannot affect emotional experience
d. Limbic system regulates the alertness/consciousness of the neocortex
e. Stimulation on limbic system causes prolonged impulses response (?)
(repeat question) Which of the following neurotransmitters can be used as an acute stimulator of growth hormone?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Page 15[edit]

Which of the following statements is an ethical dilemma in relation to the development of human reproduction technology?
a. the use of the remains in vitro fertilization of embryo
b. the use of nuclear technology in the human reproduction technology
c. the use of surrogate mother
d. the selling of ovum for research subject
e. the determination when an embryo is considered as a human (?)
The main function of the cerebellum
a. autonomic functions
b. coordinates muscle tones
c. involves in audition (hearing)
d. visual acuity
e. maintains balance and coordination of body movement - (Wikipedia).
What is the type of epithelium lining the auditory ossicles in the middle ear?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Stratified squamous epithelium
c. Simple cuboidal epithelium - (Drtbalu).
d. Simple columnar epithelium
e. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

"The middle ear is lined by cuboidal to columnar mucosal epithelium" - Wikivet.

Page 16[edit]

Which of the following neurotransmitter receptors is closely related to the reward system of the brain and narcotics drug abuse?
a. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors
b. D2 dopaminergic receptors - (PubMed).
c. D1 dopaminergic receptors
d. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors
e. D3 dopaminergic receptors
Why a person should have a value hierarchy? Because...
a. all values are the same in hierarchy
b. values make one a valuable person
c. values reflect the ambition of a person
d. values make one a noble person
e. it enables one to choose a proper decision
Which muscles below are innervated by Edinger-Westphal nucleus?
a. superior levator palpebral muscle
b. dilator pupillae muscle
c. orbicularis oculi muscle
d. superior rectus muscle
e. ciliary muscle - (Wikipedia).

Page 17[edit]

Which of the following statements is true about the T3 and T4?
a. T4 degradation is in the lung
b. T4 is converted to T3 in peripheral tissues - (SlidePlayer).
c. T4 has a faster ability to bind to the receptor than the T3
d. the level of T4 is lower than T3 in the blood
e. T4 is more active than T3
Which of the following statements is true related to vasopressin?
a. V2-receptors regulate body water conservation - (Wikipedia).
b. the effect of vasopressin in water reabsorption occurs primarily in the proximal tubule
c. Afro-american men had lower levels of vasopressin than Euro-american men.
d. women have higher levels of vasopressin than men
e. V1 receptors work to inhibit the increase of blood pressure
What is the 3rd order neuron of visual pathway?
a. Ganglion cells
b. Cone cells
c. Amacrine cells
d. Bipolar cells
e. Rod cells

All answers are incorrect. The third order neurons are the cells of the geniculate body. - (SlidePlayer). So, just answer "Ganglion cells" even though those are 2nd order neurons.

Page 18[edit]

Which of the following substances that stimulate umami receptor?
a. saccharin
b. cyclamate
c. aspartame
d. glutamate - (PubMed).
e. sucralose

Both aspartate and glutamate stimulate umami receptors. - (PubMed). But since UGM recycles old, outdated questions, let's assume this question is outdated. So, answer "glutamate" for this question.

The smallest structural and functional unit of the nervous system?
a. neuron - (Yahoo Answers).
b. cell body of the neuron
c. nucleus
d. terminal bouton
e. mitochondria
What is the distance that the normal eye can count the fingers?
a. 60 cm
b. 300 cm
c. 6 cm
d. 30 cm
e. 1500 cm (Source: this is 15 meters. I'm pretty sure I can count fingers from that far. Anyways, the question is worded wrong. A normal eye can count fingers at all of these distances).

Page 19[edit]

My friend told me, "I would never meet him for the rest of my life. Never." From the intonation of his voice, I knew he was very angry. Which area of his cerebral cortex most probably processes the programming of such intonation?
a. Right 22, 39, 40 areas
b. Left 44, 45 areas - (Wikipedia).
c. Areas 9, 10, 11, 12
d. Right 44, 45 areas
e. Left 22, 39, 40 areas
(Repeat question) Which of the following enzymes is the most important for the process of hybridogenesis?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Which of the following muscle that is most responsible for the intorsion of the eye?
a. m. rectus inferior and m. obliquus superior
b. m. rectus superior and m. obliquus inferior
c. m. rectus superior and m. obliquus superior - (Wikipedia).
d. m. rectus lateral and m. rectus medial
e. m. rectus inferior and m. obliquus inferior

Page 20[edit]

This picture below is lateral side of right tympanic membrane; what is the area pointed by the arrow?
a. umbo
b. pars tensa
c. quadrant anteroinferior
d. pars flaccida
e. annulus tympanicus

The picture was missing and they simply told us to answer "a. umbo".

Which of the following statements is correct for corticospinal tract?
a. It is located in anterior crus of capsula interna
b. It runs along pyramid at the level of mesencephalon
c. All of the tract cross to the contralateral side
d. There is difference orientation of crossing between fibers to upper and lower extremities
e. There is difference location of crossing between fibers to upper and lower extremities
Which of the following domains plays the most significant role in the opening and closing of potassium channel?
a. S3
b. S4
c. S2
d. S6
e. S5

Page 21[edit]

The following large artery is involved in forming circulus arteriosus Willis
a. a. carotis communis
b. external carotid a.
c. basilary a. - (MedlinePlus).
d. arcus aortae
e. a. subclavia
What is the characteristic of non-declarative memory?
a. Includes semantic memory
b. Easily formed and easily forgotten
c. Memory about events
d. Associated with awareness
e. Processed in the basal ganglia - (Human-Memory.net).
Which of the following neurotransmitters is the basic ingredient of the hormone melatonin?
a. norepinephrine
b. dopamine
c. acetylcholine
d. serotonin - (Medscape).
e. ???

Page 22[edit]

Which I dip my index finger in water with a temperature of 60*C, which of the following receptors respond the most?
a. Paccinian corpuscle
b. Free nerve endings - (CourseHero).
c. Paccini corpuscle
d. Merkel disc
e. Ruffini's end organ
Which is the place at the retina that only contain the cone cells?
a. Stratum ganglionare
b. Optic disc
c. Pigmented layer
d. Center of fovea - (Wikipedia).
e. Blind spot
Where does the optic radiation lie in the internal capsule?
a. genu
b. reticulothalamic part
c. anterior limb
d. sublenticular part
e. retrolenticular part - (Wikipedia).

Page 23[edit]

What is the difference between REM sleep and non-REM sleep? The REM sleep is characterized with...
a. The decrease of heart rate
b. A restful sleep
c. Beta wave domination - (SoundersSleep (PDF)).
d. Parasympathetic nerve activity
e. The increase of digestive system activity
(Repeat question) Which of the following statements is true about the T3 and T4?
a. T4 is more active than T3
b. the level of T4 is lower than T3 in the blood
c. T4 has a faster ability to bind to the receptor than the T3
d. T4 is converted to T3 in peripheral tissues
e. T4 degradation is in the lung
What is the cause of umami taste?
a. MSG - (Wikipedia).
b. Strychnine
c. NH4Cl
d. Protein
e. Saccharin

Page 24[edit]

Where does low pitch bend hair cell in the organ of Corti?
a. Scala vestibule
b. Scala tympani
c. Helicotrema - (Wikipedia).
d. Near the ovale window
e. Near the round window
Two different persons shouted at me. My brain could distinguish the intensity of their voices by which of the following properties of neurons?
a. The type of hair cells in my inner ear
b. The frequency of the action potentials (???)
c. The speed of impulses
d. The duration of action potentials
e. The amplitude of the action potentials
Where is the synpase location of optic nerve fibers that functions for pupillary reflex?
a. Edinger Westphal nuclei
b. Trochlear nerve nuclei
c. Abducens nerve nuclei
d. Pretectal nuclei
e. Lateral-geniculate body

Page 25[edit]

What is an intrinsic value?
a. the value which stands by itself, independent of other values
b. the value which appears after born
c. the value which is related to other values
d. the value which is attributed to the core of something (Wikipedia).
e. the value of materials
Where is the location of the cell body of upper motor neurons which control the voluntary movement of the body?
a. Mid brain
b. Anterior horn of spinal cord
c. Cerebral cortex (Wikipedia).
d. Cerebellar cortex
e. Pons
(Repeat question) Which of the following neurotransmitters is the basic ingredient of the hormone melatonin?
a. serotonin
b. norepinephrine
c. oxytocin
d. acetylcholine
e. dopamine

Page 26[edit]

Which of the following statements in relation to the treatment of the remaining in vitro fertilization embryo, which is considered IMMORAL?
a. it is frozen to unlimited time
b. it is eliminated (???)
c. it is donated for health research
d. it is donated to "the parents" of embryo to be managed by themselves
e. it is donated to other spouses who require it

None of these are very good, definitive answers. In fact, the question is very biased since "immoral" is defined differently by different people. Many people don't see embryos as alive and rather see them as some tissue/cells, no different than epithelial cells that are regularly scraped off the inside of the cheeks every time the teeth are brushed. Many religious people see embryos as sacred/living and eliminating them amounts to murder in their eyes.

The general function of neuron
a. maintains homeostasis
b. conducts/propagates information - (Wikipedia).
c. responds to information
d. controls information
e. coordinates information
Neuronal degeneration may be induced by intracellular accumulation of abnormally folded protein. Which intracellular organelles are involved in folding the newly synthesized protein?
a. Apparatus Golgi
b. Endoplasmic reticulum - (Wikipedia).
c. Lysosome
d. Proteosome
e. Mitochondria

Page 27[edit]

What kind of skin receptor that is sensitive to pressure and vibration?
a. Meissner corpuscle
b. Krause end bulb
c. Merkel cell
d. Ruffini corpuscle
e. Pacinian corpuscles - (Wikipedia).
Which of the following ion enters the cytoplasm prior to the release of neurotransmitter in hair cell depolarization process?
a. Na+
b. Ca2+
c. Mg2+
d. Cl-
e. K+ - (NIH).
What kind of deafness if the lateralisation to the deaf ear in the Weber test?
a. Compound deafness
b. Sensory neural deafness
c. Damage in the center of hearing
d. Damage at the Spirale ganglion
e. Conduction deafness - (Wikipedia)

Page 28[edit]

Which of the following nuclei in the hypothalamus is associated with oxytocin as neurohormone?
a. paraventral - (Wikipedia).
b. ventromedial
c. dorsomedial
d. medial reoptic area (MPO)
e. lateral hypothalamus
Excitotoxicity is the term used to describe death of neuron due to increase level of intracytoplasmic calcium. What is the trigger of calcium influx in this case?
a. Activity of microglia
b. Activation of glutamate NDMA receptor - (ScienceDaily).
c. Increase of glutamate uptake by glial cells
d. Loss of myelin sheath
e. Increase number of astrocytes
Why during "fight or flight" response the blood flow to the skeletal muscles increases?
a. The body respond to stressors via HPA axis
b. There is an increase of cortisol level in the blood
c. The alpha receptors of blood vessels are activated
d. There is ??? of sympathetic nerve activity - (Wikipedia).
e. There ??? peristaltic

Page 29[edit]

Which is epinephrine more active than norepinephrine?
a. heart
b. brain
c. muscle skeletal - (??? - UKY.edu).
d. liver
e. ren
T1R1 + T1R3 is receptor for this taste
a. sweet - (Wikipedia).
b. umami
c. salt
d. bitter
e. sour
(repeat question) Which of the following nuclei in the hypothalamus is associated with oxytocin as a neurohormone?
a. ventromedial
b. dorsomedial
c. lateral hypothalamus
d. medial preoptic area (MPO)
e. paraventral

Page 30[edit]

(repeat question) Which of the following statements is true related to vasopressin?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Which of the following is related to parasympathetic nerve activity?
a. Dehydrated body
b. Inspiration phase
c. Mobilization
d. Fight or flight response - (Wikipedia).
e. Expiration phase
(repeat question) When is the peak level of growth hormone secretion daily?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.