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Normal lungs vs COPD
4 stages of COPD.
Classic symptoms of COPD.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) can be caused due to bronchitis and/or emphysema.
  • High occurrence in smokers.
  • Age prevalence: >40 years old.
  • Acute on chronic disease.
  • Febrile + leukocytosis → acute exacerbation.
  • Presence of any comorbid factor → refer to emergency room.


  • Antibiotic
  • Steroid
  • Bronchodilator.

COPD vs Asthma[edit]

Asthma COPD
Typically begins in childhood. Patient typically >40 years of age.
No direct relationship to smoking. Mainly affects smokers and ex-smokers.
Episodic dyspnea attacks with exposure to allergen, irritant, or exercise. Progressive shortness of breath, usually with exertion.
Typically a dry cough at night. Productive cough, typically in the morning.