Cardiovascular Lesion

From FK Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Block B1 - Chest Problems


Pathological Anatomy
Office:4th floor, Radiopoetro
Lab:4th floor, Radiopoetro
Work-plan:No.
Pre-test:10 multiple-choice questions.
Post-test:5-10 written questions.
Lab Report:Yes.


Topics[edit]

  1. Capillary hemangioma
  2. Lymphangioma
  3. Thrombus
  4. Pulmonary congestion

Terms[edit]

Virchow's triad
three factors that contribute to thrombosis: hypercoagulability, hemodynamic changes (stasis, turbulence), and endothelial injury/dysfunction.
Embolus
any detached, traveling intravascular mass. A moving thrombus is an embolus.
Thrombus
a clot consisting of fibrin, platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells that forms in a blood vessel or in a chamber of the heart and can obstruct blood flow. The rupture of atherosclerotic plaques can cause arterial thrombosis (the formation of thrombi), while tissue injury, decreased movement, oral contraceptives, prosthetic heart valves, and various metabolic disorders increase the risk for venous thrombosis. A thrombus in a coronary artery can cause a heart attack.
Dissolution
the process by which a thrombus fully degrades.
Vegetation
clot, formed of blood, platelets, fibrin and (sometimes) bacteria, adherent to a diseased heart valve, contributing emboli to the circulation. In other words, a thrombus on the heart valve.
Mural thrombus
a thrombus formed on and attached to a diseased patch of endocardium. In other words, a thrombus on the heart wall.
Organization
the replacement of blood clots by fibrous tissue.
Granulation tissue
the newly formed vascular tissue normally produced in healing of wounds of soft tissue.
Parenchyma
the essential or functional elements of an organ, as distinguished from its stroma or framework.
Phlebitis
inflammation of a vein.
Aneurysm
a weak point in a blood vessel where the pressure of the blood causes the vessel wall to bulge outwards. An aneurysm may also appear as a sac-like projection from the blood vessel wall.
Pulmonary congestion
engorgement of pulmonary vessels with transudation of fluid into the alveolar and interstitial spaces. The four major consequences of pulmonary congestion are microhemorrhage, interstitial fibrosis, pulmonary edema and pulmonary hypertension.
Heart failure cells
hemosiderin-laden macrophages present in the pulmonary alveoli in cases of congestive heart failure. Also known as alveolar macrophages.
Congestion
pooling of blood caused by reduced outflow.
Recanalization
formation of new canals or paths, especially blood vessels, through an obstruction such as a clot.
Angioinvasion
presence of tumor emboli or tumor masses within blood vessels and/or lymphatic vessels.

Pre-tests[edit]

Batch 2011[edit]

  1. Hemangioma: self involuting tumor.
  2. Macroscopic feature: endothelial cells proliferation
  3. 1 year old, 8 cm mass on right side of neck: hydroma.
  4. Capillary hemangioma: large dilated lymphatic: false.
  5. Chronic pulmonary congestion: hemosiderin.
  6. Pulmonary congestion caused by infection: left heart fails to remove fluid: false.
  7. Thrombus in leg breaks free and usually goes to: pulmonary artery.
  8. Not caused by venous thrombosis: myocardial infarction
  9. Structure found in vericose veins

Links[edit]