Clinical Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Hepatobiliary Organs

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Block B3 - Abdominal Problems

Office:Anatomy Building.
Lab:Rear of Anatomy Building.
Pre-test:5 questions, short-answer.
Lab Report:None.
Overview of the GIT
Peptic ulcers: Gastric and duodenal
Peptic ulcer locations
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER)
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Rolling vs sliding hiatal hernia


painful, swollen veins in the lower portion of the rectum or anus.
inflammation of the stomach.
inflammation of the gallbladder due to cholelithiasis (gallstones obstructing the cystic duct). Treated by cholecystectomy (surgical removal of the gallbladder).
Intestinal Volvulus
a complete twisting of a loop of intestine around its mesenteric attachment site.
Hiatus hernia
Aka hiatal hernia, it is the protrusion (or herniation) of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm.
Sliding hiatus hernia
the gastroesophageal junction moves above the diaphragm together with some of the stomach.
Rolling hiatus hernia
gastroesophageal junction stays below the diaphragm but some of the stomach herniates above the diaphragm.
Esophageal atresia
a congenital disorder where the esophagus does not connect to the stomach.
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
Pyloric stenosis is the narrowing of the pylorus (which is the gateway from the stomach to the duodenum). Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis occurs due to the enlargement (hypertrophy) of the muscles surrounding the pylorus. The words "stricture" and "stenosis" mean the same thing: a narrowing of an orifice or the lumen of a tube.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Chronic or severe acid reflux. Acid reflux is caused by the inability of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to keep stomach acid from going up to the esophagus.
Heartburn (pyrosis)
The symptom felt due to acid reflux. A burning sensation in the epigastric area.
Also known as esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or upper GI endoscopy. Gastroscopy is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum.
There are four types of gastrectomy:
  • Total gastrectomy, where the whole stomach is removed.
  • Partial gastrectomy, where the lower part of the stomach is removed.
  • Sleeve gastrectomy, where the left side of the stomach is removed.
  • Esophagogastrectomy, where the top part of the stomach and part of the oesophagus (gullet) is removed.
a surgical procedure that involves resection (removal) of part of the vagus nerve. It is used as a second-line treatment and prevention for gastric peptic ulcers. Vagotomy reduces the acidity of the stomach, by denervating the parietal cells that produce acid.
Peptic ulcer
Types of peptic ulcers include gastric ulcers, esophageal ulcers, and duodenal ulcers.
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Diverticulosis occurs when small, bulging pouches (diverticula) develop in the digestive tract. When one or more of these pouches become inflamed or infected, the condition is called diverticulitis.


Batch 2011[edit]

  1. Diverticulosis.
  2. Sliding hiatus hernia.
  3. Cholostomy.
  4. Sigmoidectomy.
  5. Lig. teres hepatis.