Reflexes

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Babinski
The plantar reflex is a reflex elicited when the sole of the foot is stimulated with a blunt instrument. The reflex can take one of two forms. In normal adults the plantar reflex causes a downward response of the hallux (flexion). An upward response (extension) of the hallux is known as the Babinski response or Babinski sign.

The following are Babinski-like reflexes used to find out if there are any pyramidal tract lesions of the lower limbs. The bolded terms are the ones that students are required to know in the Ilmu Penyakit Saraf department.

  1. Chaddock's sign: By stroking the lateral malleolus.
  2. Gordon's sign: Squeezing the calf muscle
  3. Oppenheim sign: Applying pressure along the shin of tibia.
  4. Gonda's sign: pressing the 4th toe downwards and then releasing it with a snap.
  5. Stransky sign: vigorous adduction of the little toe followed by its sudden release.
  6. Schaefer's sign: squeezing the Achilles tendon.
  7. Rossolimo's sign: flexion of the toes, on quick percussion of the tips of the patient's toes with the finger tip.
  8. Mendal Bechtrew sign: flexion of the four outer toes induced by tapping the dorsum of the foot in the region of cuboid bone.
  9. Bing's sign: giving multiple pinpricks on dorsolateral surface of the foot.
  10. Moniz sign: forceful passive plantar flexion of the ankle.
  11. Throckmortan sign: pressing over the dorsal aspect of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe.
  12. Strumpell sign: application of forceful pressure over anterior tibial region.
  13. Cornell sign: scratching the dorsum of the foot along the inner side of the extensor tendon of the great toe.