Alzheimer's Disease

From FK Wiki
Revision as of 11:18, 25 February 2014 by 108.162.225.17 (talk) (Imaging)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to: navigation, search

Block C5 - Aging and Elderly


AD PlaquesTangles.jpg
Disintegrating microtubules and tau proteins.
Alzheimer's Disease infographic.

Definition[edit]

  • Slowly progressive dementia.
  • Most common cause of dementia (Second most common cause is multi-infarct dementia).
  • Memory loss with loss of cognition.

Risk factors[edit]

  • Female>male.
  • Increased age.
  • Family history.
  • Down syndrome.
    • Amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene is on chromosome 21, therefore, Down syndrome patients often get Alzheimer's disease at a younger age.

Pathophysiology[edit]

  • Neurofibrillary tangles.
  • Amyloid plaques.
  • Diffuse symmetrical cortical atrophy.

Symptoms[edit]

  • Progressive memory loss (short term).
  • Confusion.
  • Personality changes.
  • Delusions.

Diagnosis[edit]

Imaging[edit]

  • CT or MRI.
    • Cortical atrophy.
    • MRI can rule out multi-infarct dementia.
    • Advanced Alzheimer's disease: diffuse brain atrophy. Atrophy is most pronounced in the temporoparietal lobes and hippocampus.
    • Hippocampal atrophy is evident even in the early stages of the disease and can be detected by brain MRI.

Treatment[edit]

  • Mild to moderate dementia:
    • ACh esterase inhibitor (increases ACh):
      • Donezepil.
      • Rivastigmine.
      • Galantamine.
  • Severe, advanced dementia:
    • Memantine.
      • NMDA receptor antagonist (blocks glutamate activity).
      • Protects brain cells.
  • Vitamin E.

Links[edit]