Block B4 - Sense Organ Problems

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Guillaume Duchenne de Boulogne performing facial electrostimulus experiments.jpg
Spinal cord tracts
Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin
Effects of dopamine and serotonin deficit
Antidepressants and their effects on sleep
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Parkinson's: Pill-rolling, shuffling, persistent tremors
Pain locations by type of headache


Parkinson's disease
a neurodegenerative disease characterized, in part, by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. The major symptoms of Parkinson's disease include tremor, akinesia, bradykinesia, and stiffness. Signs are repetitive "pill-rolling" movement of the hands, persistent tremors, and a shuffling gait with small steps. There are non-motoric symptoms as well as motoric symptoms.
of, relating to, resembling, producing, or mediating parasympathetic effects.
an increase in muscle tone due to hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex.
a neurological disorder characterized by jerky involuntary movements affecting especially the shoulders, hips, and face. It is a state of excessive, spontaneous movements, irregularly timed, non-repetitive, randomly distributed and abrupt in character. Patients with chorea exhibit motor impersistence (ie, they cannot maintain a sustained posture). When attempting to grip an object, they alternately squeeze and release ("milkmaid's grip"). When they attempt to protrude the tongue, the tongue often pops in and out ("harlequin's tongue").
a lack of muscle control during voluntary movements, such as walking or picking up objects. A sign of an underlying condition, ataxia can affect movement, speech, eye movement and swallowing. Persistent ataxia usually results from damage to the cerebellum — the part of the brain that controls muscle coordination.
a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles. Hiccups are a kind of myoclonic jerk specifically affecting the diaphragm.
Dizziness is a general, non-specific term to indicate a sense of disorientation. Vertigo is a type of dizziness and refers to a false sensation that oneself or the surroundings are moving or spinning (usually accompanied by nausea and loss of balance) that is a result of a mismatch between vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems.
temporary loss of consciousness caused by a fall in blood pressure.




Clinical Pathology[edit]


Block Exam[edit]


This miniquiz has 30 multiple-choice questions and covers week 1 to 3.